Divine Titles In The Old Testament

Permission was kindly granted from John Ritchie Ltd www.ritchiechristianmedia.co.uk to use this section from the Thomas Newberry Bible (Penfold Book & Bible House September 1987) Introduction “VII Divine Titles”

There are treasures of precious truth in the Titles of God and of Christ, which are more or less hidden or obscured in the Authorized Version. One object of the Englishman’s Bible is to present to the eye of the Reader these various titles as they really exist in the Inspired Originals.

A name or title is expressive of nature and character. Each separate title of God may be regarded as one letter, complete in itself, while all arranged and combined together, spell out in full the one grand and wondrous Name of the God of the Bible.

EL. אֵל

The title Ël (God, singular) occurs about 250 times.
The first occurrence is in Gen. 14:18, 19, 20, 22. (Gen 14:18,19,20,22) “Most High “God (Ël), possessor of =heaven and earth.”
Ël signifies “ strong,” “ first.” It is the title which shows God to be the Mighty One, the First Great Cause of all.
This title is generally connected with some one or more of the Divine attributes or perfections ; as—

“Almighty “God.” Gen. 17:1.
“ Everlasting “God.” Gen 21:33.
“A jealous “God.” Exod. 20:5.
“A “God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.” Deut. 32:4.
“A great “God, a mighty and a terrible.” Deut. 10:17.
The living “God.” Josh. 3:10.
“A merciful “God.” Deut. 4:31.
“A faithful “God.” Deut. 7:9.
“A mighty and terrible “God.” Deut. 7:21, etc., etc.

The persons of the Godhead are three—Father, Son, and Spirit ; but in nature and essence God is one.

Each attribute of God is infinite. One infinite eternal love, one infinite almighty power, and so on ; hence the attributes are connected generally with the singular name for God, Él.

ELOAH. אֱל֣וֹהַ

Eloah (eh“God, singular), from AHLAH, to worship, to adore, presents God as the one supreme object of worship, the Adorable One.
It occurs about 56 times.
First, in Deut. 32:15. “ Then he forsook Eloah, which made him; ” again,
Deut. 32:17, They sacrificed to devils, not to Eloah.” It is very frequently used in the Book of Job.

ELAH, or ELAHAH. אֵֽלֶּה or אֱלָ֣הַיָּ֔א

The corresponding title to Eloah is in the Chaldee language Elah (eh-God, singular), or Elahah, emphatic. It is found in the Books of Ezra and Daniel 77 times, and always in the singular when applied to God.
The Chaldee portions of the Scriptures (marked in the margin) occur in Ezra and Daniel, with one verse in (Jeremiah 10:11). Thus the record of Israel’s captivity is inwrought in the Sacred Word.

ELOHIM.    אֱלֹהִים

Elohim (“God, plural of Eloah) occurs about 2500 times; first, in Gen.1:1.
In the beginning God (Plural) created the heavens and the earth.”

Here it is joined to a verb in the singular, “God (Elohim, plural) created,” (singular). Showing Trinity acting in unity.

It also frequently occurs with adjectives, pronouns, and verbs in the plural.
Gen. 1:26— “And God (plural) said, Let us “make (plural) man in our “image” (singular).
Gen. 3:22—“as one of us.”
Gen. 20:13—“When “God caused (plural) me to wander.”
Josh. 24:19—“He is a “holy “God (plural); He is a jealous God” (singular).
See also Isa. 6:8.

The Chaldee form Elahhayah occurs in Jer. 10:11, applied to false gods.

JEHOVAH.   יְהוָ֥ה

Jehovah (3 The Lord). The title Jehovah occurs about 7600 times, but it is generally rendered “ the Lord,” and only occasionally “ Jehovah,” as Exod. 6:3 ; Ps. 83:18 ; Isa. 12:2; 26:4 ; and in combination, as Gen. 22:14 ; Exod. 17:15 ; Judg. 6:24 ; in all 7 times. 6800 times rendered “ Lord,” 800 times “ God.”

It first occurs, in connexion with Elohim, in Gen. 2:4. JThe Lord “God

(Jehovah Elohim) made.” And alone, Gen. 4:1, 3, etc.

The signification is,—He that always was, that always is, and that ever is to come. We have it thus translated and interpreted in Rev. 1:4. “ From him xxwhich is” (present participle, 6 tov, the Ever-existing One), “and which was” (imperfect tense, o rjv, expressing continuance in the past), “ and xxwhich is to come” (present participle, 6 ep^o/xei/oç, the Coming One, ever to come).

It is a combination in marvellous perfection of the three periods of existence in one word, the future, the present, and the past.

First, Ye hi, “ he will be,” long tense. Second, hove, “being,” participle. Third, hahyah, he was,” short tense used in the past.

Taking the first three letters of YEHi, Yeh, יְה, the middle two letters of hOVe, יְ, and the last two letters of hahyAH, ah, יְה, we have Yehovah, or Jehovah, in full ; יְהוָ֥ה, Yeh-ov-ah.

I ‘AM THAT I ‘AM. אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה  אֶֽהְיֶ֑ה

Ehyeh ASHER ehyeh. Literally, “I will be that I will be.” Exod. 3:14. But as the so-called future or long tense expresses not simply the future, but also and especially continuance, the force is, “ I continue to be, and will be, what I continue to be, and will be.”

EHYEH, “ I *AM,” literally, “I will be.” Exod. 3:14. But in force and meaning, “ I that ever will be.” 6 wr, “ the Ever-existing One,” or, 6 ep%o/4ez/oç, “ He that is to come,” or, “ the Coming One.”

JAH or YAH. יָהּ

Jah (Jh the Lord) . This title occurs 49 times, and only in the Books of Exodus, Psalms, and Isaiah. *

Its first occurrence is in Exod. 15:2. Jh The Lord (Jah) is my strength and song.”

It is often associated with the words “ Praise ye ” in the word Hallelujah, Praise ye Jah.”

This title is expressive of eternal existence. It is the title of God, as inhabiting eternity, to whom past, present, and future are one eternal now.

It is composed of the first and last letters of the name Jehovah, Yh, with the central vowel ah -יָהּ—Jah, or Yah.

It is a sublime title, see Ps. 68:4. Extol him that rideth upon the heavens ” (or the void spaces of infinitude) “by his name Jah” (the Eternal One), “and rejoice before Him.” The Infinite and the Eternal God.

The title Jah or Yah is at once one of the sublimest yet simplest of the Divine names. The simplest form of speech which infant lips can try,” yet expressive of God’s infinitude. The highest form of heavenly adoration ; “ Alleluiah ” praise ye Yah. Rev. 19:1, 3, 6.

ËL SHADDAY. אֵ֣ל שַׁדַּ֔י

ËL (singular) Shadday (plural) (“God (singular) Almighty (plural) , or “God 2All-Sufficient). “Él, “God, singular; 2Shadday, plural, either from Shaddid, almighty, strong, or from Shadday, the breasts.

This title combines the singular title “El with the plural title 2Shadday.

It occurs in combination, “ God Almighty,” or, “ the Almighty God,” 7 times, and alone, “ the Almighty,” 41 times. Chiefly in the Book of Job. Its first occurrence is in Gen. xvii. 1. “ I am the 2 Almighty “God.

ADÖN. הָאָדֹ֥ן

Adön (“a“Lord,” singular), Sovereign-Lord, Master, Possessor, or Proprietor. Root either from dun, to rule, govern, to judge, or from Aden, a base.

Occurs about 30 times. First occurrence, Exod. 23:17. “ Three times in

the year all thy males shalLappear before the Adön Jehovah.”

ADONAHY. אֲדֹנָ֤י

Adönahy (“ 2Lord,” plural), Sovereign-Lord, or Master. In this form used only as a Divine title ; different from adönay, plural of Adön. The one is Adonahy, the other adönay.

Occurs about 290 times. First occurrence, Gen. 15:2, 8. And Abraham said, Adonahy Jehovah.”


Jehovah-Jireh, יְהוָ֖ה יֵרָאֶֽה, “Jehovah will see,” or “provide.” Gen. 22:14.
Jehovah-Ropheca, יְהוָ֖ה רֹפְאֶֽךָ, “Jehovah that healeth thee.” Exod. 15:26.
Jehovah-Nissi, יהוה נסי, “ Jehovah my banner.” Exod. 17:15.
Jehovah-Mekaddishkeh, יְהוָ֖ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶֽם, “Jehovah that doth sanctify you.“ Exod. 31:13. Lev. 20:8; 21:8; 22:9, 16, 32. Ezek. 20:12.
Jehovah-Elohenu, •יהוה אלהינו, “Jehovah our God.”
Jehovah-Eloheka, ג:‘הוה אלסיף Jehovah thy God.”
Jehovah-Eeohay, ‘יהוה אלה, “Jehovah my God.”
Jehovah-Shalom, יְהוָ֖ה שָׁלֹ֑ום, “ Jehovah send peace.” Judg. 6:24.
Jehovah-Tsebahoth, יהוָ֥ה צְבָאֹ֖ות, “Jehovah of hosts.” 1 Sam. 1:3, etc.
Jehovah-Rohi, יהוה רעי, “ Jehovah my shepherd.” Ps. 23:1.
Jehovah-Heleyon, הוחעליון;, “Jehovah most high.” Ps. 7:17;47:2;97:9.
Jehovah-Tsidkeenu, •יהוה צךר!נו, “Jehovah our righteousness.” Jer. 23:6; 33:16.
Jehovah-Shahmmah, הויה שמה;, “Jehovah is there.” Ezek. 48:35.






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