shepherd-of-psalm-23

Leaders or Overseers in the Church

God in His word paints a picture of the men who are to lead, guide and direct the Local assembly of believers in The Lord Jesus Christ. Knowing the role of those chosen of The Holy Spirit as shepherds in the assembly is a guard against following the wrong people, or refusing to follow the right ones!


1 Timothy 3  — 1
 This is a true saying, If a man desire [orego (ὀρέγομαι, 3713)] the office of a bishop [episkope(ἐπισκοπή, 1984)], he desireth [epithumeo (ἐπιθυμέω, 1937)] a good work [ergon (ἔργον, 2041)]. 2 A bishop [episkopos(ἐπίσκοπος, 1985)]  then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach; 3 Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous; 4One that ruleth [proistemi (προΐστημι, 4291)] well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity; 5 (For if a man know not how to rule [proistemi (προΐστημι, 4291)] his own house, how shall he take care [epimeleomai(ἐπιμελέομαι, 1959)] of the church [ekklesia (ἐκκλησία, 1577)] of God?) 6 Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the devil. 7 Moreover he must have a good report of them which are without; lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil. 8 Likewise must the deacons [diakonos (διάκονος, 1249)] be grave, not doubletongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre; 9 Holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. 10 And let these also first be proved; then let them use the office of a deacon [diakoneo (διακονέω, 1247)], being found blameless. 11 Even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things. 12 Let the deacons[diakonos (διάκονος, 1249)] be the husbands of one wife, ruling [proistemi (προΐστημι, 4291)] their children and their own houses well. 13 For they that have used the office of a deacon [diakoneo (διακονέω, 1247)] well purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. 14 These things write I unto thee, hoping to come unto thee shortly: 15 But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 16 And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.

In translating ἐπισκοπήb (1984) – 53.69, ἐπισκοπέωc (1983) – 53.70, or ἐπίσκοπος(1985) – 53.71, it is important to try to combine the concepts of both service and leadership, in other words, the responsibility of caring for the needs of a congregation as well as directing the activities of the membership. In some translations an equivalent may be ‘helper and leader.’[1]

You cannot be a good leader if you do not have a shepherd’s heart… The heart of a servant!    Luke 22:26

  • orego (ὀρέγομαι, 3713), to reach or stretch out for a thing, of longing after it, with stress upon the object desired”
  • episkope (ἐπισκοπή, 1984), “visitation,” or “bishoprick”, in 1 Tim. 3:1 kjv“the office of a bishop” lit., “(if any one seeketh) overseership,” there is no word representing office

Note: The corresponding verb is episkopeo, which, in reference to the work of an overseer, is found in 1 Pet. 5:2, rv, “exercising the oversight,” for kjv “taking the oversight.”

  • episkopeo (ἐπισκοπέω, 1983), “looking carefully upon” in Heb 12:15, rv (kjv, “looking diligently”), epi being probably intensive here; in 1 Pet. 5:2, “to exercise the oversight, to visit, care for.”
  • episkeptomai (ἐπισκέπτομαι, 1980), “seeking out,” is rendered “look ye out” in Acts 6:3.[2]
  • epithumeo (ἐπιθυμέω, 1937), “to desire earnestly stresses the inward impulse rather than the object desired
  • ergon (ἔργον, 2041), “work, employment, task,” a deed, act,
  • episkopos (ἐπίσκοπος, 1985), “ an overseer” (epi, “over,” skopeo, “to look or watch”), whence Eng. “bishop,” which has precisely the same meaning, is found in Acts 20:28Phil. 1:11 Tim. 3:2Titus 1:71 Pet. 2:25.
  • proistemi (προΐστημι, 4291), “to stand before” hence, “to lead, attend to” (indicating care and diligence), is translated “to rule” (middle voice), with reference to a local church, in Rom. 12:8; perfect active in 1 Tim. 5:17; with reference to a family, 1 Tim. 3:4,12 (middle voice); 1 Tim. 3:5 (2nd aorist, active)
  • epimeleomai (ἐπιμελέομαι, 1959), signifies “to take care of,” involving forethought and provision (epiindicating “the direction of the mind toward the object cared for”), Luke 10:34-35, of the Good Samaritan’s care for the wounded man, and in 1 Tim. 3:5, of a bishop’s (or overseer’s) care of a church—a significant association of ideas.¶
  • ekklesia (ἐκκλησία, 1577), from ek, “out of,” and klesis, “a calling” (kaleo, “to call”) – ASSEMBLY, The church, not the building but the people!
  • diakonos (διάκονος, 1249), (Eng., “deacon”), primarily denotes a “servant,” whether as doing servile work, or as an attendant rendering free service, without particular reference to its character. The word is probably connected with the verb dioko, “to hasten after, pursue” (perhaps originally said of a runner). “It occurs in the NT of domestic servants, John 2:5, 9; the civil ruler, Rom. 13:4; Christ, Rom. 15:8; Gal. 2:17; the followers of Christ in relation to their Lord, John 12:26; Eph. 6:21; Col. 1:7; 4:7; the followers of Christ in relation to one another, Matt. 20:26; 23:11, Mark 9:35; 10:43; the servants of Christ in the work of preaching and teaching, 1 Cor. 3:5; 2 Cor. 3:6; 6:4; 11:23; Eph. 3:7; Col. 1:23, 25; 1 Thess. 3:2; 1 Tim. 4:6; those who serve in the churches, Rom. 16:1 (used of a woman here only in NT); Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3:8, 12; false apostles, servants of Satan, 2 Cor. 11:15. Once diakonos is used where, apparently, angels are intended, Matt. 22:13; in v. 3, where men are intended, doulos is used.”* 
  • diakoneo (διακονέω, 1247), “to be a servant, attendant, to serve, wait upon, minister.”
  • 53.66 διακονέωd: “serve God in some special way, to minister to” 1 Tim 3:10. (no office is envisioned here, just work, service)

1 Timothy 5:17  — 17 Let the elders [presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245)] that rule [proistemi (προΐστημι, 4291)] well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour [kopiao (κοπιάω, 2872)] in the word and doctrine.

  • presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245), an adjective, the comparative degree of presbus, “an old man, an elder” is used (a) of age (b) of rank or positions of responsibility
  • proistemi (προΐστημι, 4291), lit., “to stand before,” hence, “to lead, attend to” (indicating care and diligence), is translated “to rule” (middle voice), with reference to a local church, in Rom. 12:8; perfect active in 1 Tim. 5:17; with reference to a family, 1 Tim. 3:4,12 (middle voice); v. 1 Tim. 3:5 (2nd aorist, active)

Guide, Lead, Influence          through –

    Discipline (“looking carefully” Heb. 12:15)

  •         Model / Mentor
  •         Instruct /Teach
  •         Correct/ Punish/Chastise

 

  • 36.1 γέομαιbπροί̈σταμαιaκατευθύνωφέρωd; ἄγωd: “to so influence others as to cause them to follow a recommended course of action”, “to guide, to direct, to lead”.’ἡγέομαιb : γινέσθω … ὁ ἡγούμενος ὡς ὁ διακονῶν‘he who takes the lead must be like the one who serves’ or ‘he who is the master must be like one who serves’ Lk 22:26; μνημονεύετε τῶν ἡγουμένων ὑμῶν ‘remember your leaders’ or ‘… masters’ He 13:7.
  • προί̈σταμαιa: προϊσταμένους ὑμῶν ἐν κυρίῳ καὶ νουθετοῦντας ὑμᾶς ‘those who guide you in the Lord and instruct you’ 1 Th 5:12. The phrase ‘in the Lord’ probably refers to matters concerning the Christian life.
  • κατευθύνω: ὁ δὲ κύριος κατευθύναι ὑμῶν τὰς καρδίας εἰς τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ θεοῦ ‘may the Lord lead your hearts to the love for God’ 2 Th 3:5.φέρωd: φερόμενοι ἐν τῷ ἁγίῳ πνεύματι ‘being guided by the Holy Spirit’ Ac 15:29 (apparatus); ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου φερόμενοι ἐλάλησαν ‘but being led by the Holy Spirit, they spoke’ 2 Pe 1:21
  • kopiao (κοπιάω, 2872), akin to A, No. 1, has the two different meanings (a) “growing weary,” (b) “toiling”; it is sometimes translated “to bestow labor”  It is translated by the verb “to labor” in Matt. 11:28; John 4:38 (2nd part); Acts 20:35; Rom. 16:12 (twice); 1 Cor. 15:10; 16:16; Eph. 4:28; Phil. 2:16; Col. 1:29; 1 Thess. 5:12; 1 Tim. 4:10; 5:17; 2 Tim. 2:6; Rev. 2:3; 1 Cor. 4:12, rv, “toil” (kjv, “labor”)

 

 

 

 


1 Timothy 4:14  — 14 Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery [presbuterion (πρεσβυτέριον, 4244)].

  • presbuterion (πρεσβυτέριον, 4244), a noun, “an assembly of aged men,” denotes (a) the Council or Senate among the Jews, Luke 22:66; Acts 22:5; (b) the elders or bishops in a local church1 Tim. 4:14, “the presbytery”

 

Titus 1:5–9  — 5 For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders [presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245)] in every city, as I had appointed [diatasso (διατάσσω, 1299)] thee: 6 If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly. 7 For a bishop[episkopos (ἐπίσκοπος, 1985)] must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre; 8 But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate; 9Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.

  • presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245), an adjective, the comparative degree of presbus, “an old man, an elder,” is used(a) of age (b) of rank or positions of responsibility
  • diatasso (διατάσσω, 1299), a strengthened form of No. 5 (dia, “through,” intensive), frequently denotes “to arrange, appoint, prescribe,” e.g., of what was “appointed” for tax collectors to collect
  • episkopos (ἐπίσκοπος, 1985), an overseer” (epi, “over,” skopeo, “to look or watch”), whence Eng. “bishop,” which has precisely the same meaning, is found in Acts 20:28; Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3:2; Titus 1:7; 1 Pet. 2:25.

 

1 Peter 4:15  — 15 But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as an evildoer, or as a busybody in other men’s matters. [allotrioepiskopos (ἀλλοτριεπίσκοπος, 244)] “busybody” in the kjv of 1 Pet. 4:15)

  • allotrioepiskopos (ἀλλοτριεπίσκοπος, 244), from allotrios, “belonging to another person,” and episkopos, “an overseer,” translated “busybody” in the kjv of 1 Pet. 4:15, “meddler,” rv, was a legal term for a charge brought against Christians as being hostile to civilized society, their purpose being to make Gentiles conform to Christian standards. Some explain it as a pryer into others’ affairs

Philippians 1:1 — 1 Paul and Timotheus, the servants of Jesus Christ, to all the saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philippi, with the bishops [episkopos (ἐπίσκοπος, 1985)] and deacons [diakonos (διάκονος, 1249)]:

  • episkopos (ἐπίσκοπος, 1985), lit., an overseer” (epi, “over,” skopeo, “to look or watch”), whence Eng. “bishop,” which has precisely the same meaning, is found in Acts 20:28; Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3:2; Titus 1:7; 1 Pet. 2:25.
  • diakonos (διάκονος, 1249), (Eng., “deacon”), primarily denotes a “servant,” whether as doing servile work, or as an attendant rendering free service, without particular reference to its character. The word is probably connected with the verb dioko, “to hasten after, pursue” (perhaps originally said of a runner). “It occurs in the NT of domestic servants, John 2:5,9; the civil ruler, Rom. 13:4; Christ, Rom. 15:8; Gal. 2:17; the followers of Christ in relation to their Lord, John 12:26; Eph. 6:21; Col. 1:7; 4:7; the followers of Christ in relation to one another, Matt. 20:26; 23:11, Mark 9:35; 10:43; the servants of Christ in the work of preaching and teaching, 1 Cor. 3:5; 2 Cor. 3:6; 6:4; 11:23; Eph. 3:7; Col. 1:23, 25; 1 Thess. 3:2; 1 Tim. 4:6; those who serve in the churches, Rom. 16:1 (used of a woman here only in NT); Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3:8, 12; false apostles, servants of Satan, 2 Cor. 11:15. Once diakonos is used where, apparently, angels are intended, Matt. 22:13; in v. 3, where men are intended, doulos is used.”* 

 


1 Peter 5:1–5  — 1 The elders [presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245)], which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder [sumpresbuteros (συμπρεσβύτερος, 4850)], and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed: 2 Feed [poimaino (ποιμαίνω, 4165)] the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight [episkopeo(ἐπισκοπέω, 1983)] thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; 3 Neither as being lords[katakurieuo (κατακυριεύω, 2634)] over God’s heritage, but being ensamples tupos (τύπος, 5179) to the flock. 4 And when the chief Shepherd [archipoimen (ἀρχιποίμην, 750)] shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.5 Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder [presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245)]. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.

  • presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245), “an old man, an elder,” is used (a) of age (b) of rank or positions of responsibility
  • sumpresbuteros (συμπρεσβύτερος, 4850), “a fellow-elder” (sun, “with”), is used in 1 Pet. 5:1.
  • poimaino (ποιμαίνω, 4165), “to act as a shepherd”
  • episkopeo (ἐπισκοπέω, 1983), “to look upon” (epi, “upon,” skopeo, “to look at, contemplate”), is found in 1 Pet. 5:2 (some ancient authorities omit it), “exercising the oversight,” rv (kjv, “taking …”); “exercising” is the right rendering; the word does not imply the entrance upon such responsibility, but the fulfillment of it. It is not a matter of assuming a position, but of the discharge of the duties. The word is found elsewhere in Heb. 12:15, “looking carefully,” rv. See look.¶ Cf. episkope in 1 Tim. 3:1 (see bishop, No. 2).
  • LOOK 13. episkopeo (ἐπισκοπέω, 1983), lit., “to look upon” (epi, and No. 12), is rendered “looking carefully” in Heb. 12:15rv (kjv, “looking diligently”), epi being probably intensive here; in 1 Pet. 5:2, “to exercise the oversight, to visit, care for.” – OVERSIGHT (exercise, take)

 

  • katakurieuo (κατακυριεύω, 2634), “lording it (over)” in 1 Pet. 5:3rv: see dominion
  • tupos (τύπος, 5179) “an impression, the mark of a blow” John 20:25; (b) the “impress” of a seal, the stamp made by a die, a figure, image, Acts 7:43; (c) a “form” or mold, Rom. 6:17 (see rv); (d) the sense or substance of a letter, Acts 23:25; (e) “an ensample,” pattern, Acts 7:44; Heb. 8:5, “pattern”; in an ethical sense, 1 Cor. 10:6; Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:7; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12, rv, “ensample”; Titus 2:7, rv, “ensample,” for kjv, “pattern”; 1 Pet. 5:3; in a doctrinal sense, a typeRom. 5:14. See example, fashion, figure, form, manner, pattern, print.¶
  • archipoimen (ἀρχιποίμην, 750), “a chief shepherd” (arche, “chief,” poimen, “a shepherd”), is said of Christ only, 1 Pet. 5:4. Modern Greeks use it of tribal chiefs.

 


Hebrews 13:7  — 7 Remember them which have the rule [hegeomai (ἡγέομαι, 2233)] over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.

Hebrews 13:17  — 17 Obey them that have the rule [hegeomai (ἡγέομαι, 2233)] over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.

Hebrews 13:24  — 24 Salute all them that have the rule [hegeomai (ἡγέομαι, 2233)] over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.

hegeomai (ἡγέομαι, 2233)“to lead” is translated “to rule in Heb. 13:7, 17, 24 (kjv marg., in the first two, “are the guides” and “guide.”  “To so influence others as to cause them to follow a recommended course of action” “to guide, to direct, to lead” “To point out the way”

 


1 Thessalonians 5:12  — 12 And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over[proistemi (προΐστημι, 4291)] you in the Lord, and admonish you;

  • proistemi (προΐστημι, 4291), lit., “to stand before,” hence, “to lead, attend to” (indicating care and diligence), is translated “to rule” (middle voice), with reference to a local church, in Rom. 12:8; perfect active in 1 Tim. 5:17; with reference to a family, 1 Tim. 3:4,12 (middle voice); v. 1 Tim. 3:5 (2nd aorist, active)

A Guide, Lead (36.1–36.9)

  • 36.1 ἡγέομαιb; προί̈σταμαιa; κατευθύνω; φέρωd; ἄγωd: to so influence others as to cause them to follow a recommended course of action—‘to guide, to direct, to lead.’ἡγέομαιb : γινέσθω … ὁ ἡγούμενος ὡς ὁδιακονῶν ‘he who takes the lead must be like the one who serves’ or ‘he who is the master must be like one who serves’ Lk 22:26; μνημονεύετε τῶν ἡγουμένων ὑμῶν ‘remember your leaders’ or ‘… masters’ He 13:7.
  • προί̈σταμαιa: προϊσταμένους ὑμῶν ἐν κυρίῳ καὶ νουθετοῦντας ὑμᾶς ‘those who guide you in the Lord and instruct you’ 1 Th 5:12. The phrase ‘in the Lord’ probably refers to matters concerning the Christian life.
  • κατευθύνω: ὁ δὲ κύριος κατευθύναι ὑμῶν τὰς καρδίας εἰς τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ θεοῦ ‘may the Lord lead your hearts to the love for God’ 2 Th 3:5.φέρωd: φερόμενοι ἐν τῷ ἁγίῳ πνεύματι ‘being guided by the Holy Spirit’ Ac 15:29(apparatus); ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου φερόμενοι ἐλάλησαν ‘but being led by the Holy Spirit, they spoke’ 2 Pe 1:21

 


Acts 20:28  — 28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which [en (ἐν, 1722)] the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers [episkopos (ἐπίσκοπος, 1985)], to feed [poimaino (ποιμαίνω, 4165)] the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.

  • en (ἐν, 1722) “in, among”, marker of a position defined as being in a location,
  • (Only once [here] in the New Testament did I find this Greek word translated as “over”. Of the 2768 occurrences it is translated as “in” or “among” 1984 times. This put serious doubt as to whether the thought suggests authority or office over the people of God. It seems rather to suggest the work of guiding them from among them by example first, and word second. All authority is in the Word of God. Therefore these “men of God” who “oversee” can apply only the Word of God, and not their own opinions in guiding God’s people [RBBD])
  • poimaino (ποιμαίνω, 4165), “to act as a shepherd”
  • Note: In John 21:15, 16, 17, the Lord, addressing Peter, first uses No. 1, bosko (v. 15) then No. 2, poimaino (v. 16), and then returns to bosko (v. 17). These are not simply interchangeable (nor are other variations in His remarks); a study of the above notes will show this. Nor, again, is there a progression of ideas. The lesson to be learnt, as Trench points out (Syn. Sec.xxv), is that, in the spiritual care of God’s children, the “feeding” of the flock from the Word of God is the constant and regular necessity; it is to have the foremost place. The tending (which includes this) consists of other acts, of discipline, authority, restoration, material assistance of individuals, but they are incidental in comparison with the “feeding.”

Acts 20:17  — 17 And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders [presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245)]of the church [ekklesia (ἐκκλησία, 1577)].

  • presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος, 4245), an adjective, the comparative degree of presbus, “an old man, an elder,” is used(a) of age (b) of rank or positions of responsibility
  • (3) in the Christian churches those who, being raised up and qualified by the work of the Holy Spirit, were appointed to have the spiritual care of, and to exercise oversight over, the churches. To these the term “bishops,”episkopoi, or “overseers,” is applied (see Acts 20:17,28, and Titus 1:5 and 7), the latter term indicating the nature of their work presbuteroi their maturity of spiritual experience. The divine arrangement seen throughout the NT was for a plurality of these to be appointed in each church, Acts 14:23; 20:17; Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 5:17; Titus 1:5. The duty of “elders” is described by the verb episkopeo. They were appointed according as they had given evidence of fulfilling the divine qualifications, Titus 1:6-9; cf. 1 Tim. 3:1-7 and 1 Pet. 5:2;
  • Note: Presbuteros, “an elder,” is another term for the same person as bishop or overseer. See Acts 20:17,28. The term “elder” indicates the mature spiritual experience and understanding of those so described; the term “bishop,” or “overseer,” indicates the character of the work undertaken. According to the divine will and appointment, as in the NT, there were to be “bishops” in every local church, Acts 14:23; 20:17; Phil. 1:1; Titus 1:5; Jas. 5:14. Where the singular is used, the passage is describing what a “bishop” should be, 1 Tim. 3:2Titus 1:7. Christ Himself is spoken of as “the … Bishop of our souls,” 1 Pet. 2:25. See elder. 
  • ekklesia (ἐκκλησία, 1577), from ek, “out of,” and klesis, “a calling” (kaleo, “to call”) – ASSEMBLY

 


John 21:15–17  — 15 So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest [agapao(ἀγαπάω, 25)] thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love [phileo (φιλέω, 5368)] thee. He saith unto himFeed [bosko (βόσκω, 1006)] my lambs [arnion (ἀρνίον, 721)]. 16 He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest [agapao (ἀγαπάω, 25)] thou me? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love [phileo(φιλέω, 5368)] thee. He saith unto him, Feed [poimaino (ποιμαίνω, 4165)] my sheep [probaton (πρόβατον, 4263)]. 17 He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest [phileo (φιλέω, 5368)] thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest [phileo (φιλέω, 5368)] thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love [phileo (φιλέω, 5368)] thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed [bosko (βόσκω, 1006)] my sheep [probaton(πρόβατον, 4263)].

  • Hidden in these 3 verses are three variances.
    • [agapao (ἀγαπάω, 25)] / [phileo (φιλέω, 5368)]
    • [bosko (βόσκω, 1006)] /  [poimaino (ποιμαίνω, 4165)]
    • [arnion (ἀρνίον, 721)]  /  [probaton (πρόβατον, 4263)]

 

25 – A willful love in the mind.

  • agapao (ἀγαπάω, 25) and the corresponding noun agape
  • In respect of agapao as used of God, it expresses the deep and constant “love” and interest of a perfect Being towards entirely unworthy objects, producing and fostering a reverential “love” in them towards the Giver, and a practical “love” towards those who are partakers of the same, and a desire to help others to seek the Giver.
  • “Christian love has God for its primary object, and expresses itself first of all in implicit obedience to His commandments, John 14:15, 21, 23; 15:10; 1 John 2:5; 5:3; 2 John 6. Selfwill, that is, self-pleasing, is the negation of love to God.
  • “Christian love, whether exercised toward the brethren, or toward men generally, is not an impulse from the feelings, it does not always run with the natural inclinations, nor does it spend itself only upon those for whom some affinity is discovered. Love seeks the welfare of all, Rom. 15:2, and works no ill to any, Rom. 13:8-10; love seeks opportunity to do good to ‘all men, and especially toward them that are of the household of the faith,’ Gal. 6:10. See further 1 Cor. 13 and Col. 3:12-14.”*

5368 – A passionate love in the heart.

  • phileo (φιλέω, 5368) is to be distinguished from agapao in this, that phileo more nearly represents “tender affection.”
  • Phileo is never used in a command to men to “love” God; it is, however, used as a warning in 1 Cor. 16:22agapao is used instead, e.g., Matt. 22:37; Luke 10:27; Rom. 8:28; 1 Cor. 8:3; 1 Pet. 1:8; 1 John 4:21. The distinction between the two verbs finds a conspicuous instance in the narrative of John 21:15-17. The context itself indicates that agapao in the first two questions suggests the “love” that values and esteems (cf. Rev. 12:11). It is an unselfish “love,” ready to serve. The use of phileo in Peter’s answers and the Lord’s third question, conveys the thought of cherishing the Object above all else, of manifesting an affection characterized by constancy, from the motive of the highest veneration. See also Trench, Syn., Sec.xii.  Again, to “love” (phileo) life, from an undue desire to preserve it, forgetful of the real object of living, meets with the Lord’s reproof, John 12:25. On the contrary, to “love” life (agapao) as used in 1 Pet. 3:10, is to consult the true interests of living. Here the word phileo would be quite inappropriate.

 

  • bosko (βόσκω, 1006), “to feed” is primarily used of a herdsman (from boo, “to nourish” the special function being to provide food;
  • poimaino (ποιμαίνω, 4165), “to act as a shepherd”

Note: In John 21:15-17, the Lord, addressing Peter, first uses No. 1, bosko (v. 15) then No. 2, poimaino (v. 16), and then returns to bosko (v. 17). These are not simply interchangeable (nor are other variations in His remarks); a study of the above notes will show this. Nor, again, is there a progression of ideas. The lesson to be learnt, as Trench points out (Syn. Sec.xxv), is that, in the spiritual care of God’s children, the “feeding” of the flock from the Word of God is the constant and regular necessity; it is to have the foremost place. The “tending” (which includes this) consists of other acts, of discipline, authority, restoration, material assistance of individuals, but they are incidental in comparison with the “feeding”.

 

  • arnion (ἀρνίον, 721) is a diminutive in form [LAMB], but the diminutive force is not to be pressed. The general tendency in the vernacular was to use nouns in -ion freely, apart from their diminutive significance. It is used only by the apostle John, (a) in the plural, in the Lord’s command to Peter, John 21:15, with symbolic reference to young converts
  • probaton (πρόβατον, 4263), from probaino, “to go forward,” i.e., of the movement of quadrupeds, was used among the Greeks of small cattle, sheep and goats; in the NT, of “sheep” only (a) naturally, e.g., Matt. 12:11, 12; (b) metaphorically, of those who belong to the Lord, the lost ones of the house of Israel, Matt. 10:6; of those who are under the care of the Good Shepherd, e.g., Matt. 26:31; John 10:1, lit., “the fold of the sheep

Hebrews 12:15  — 15 Looking diligently [episkopeo (ἐπισκοπέω, 1983)] lest any man fail of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled;

  • episkopeo (ἐπισκοπέω, 1983), lit., “to look upon” (epi, “upon,” skopeo, “to look at, contemplate”), is found in 1 Pet. 5:2 (some ancient authorities omit it), “exercising the oversight,” rv (kjv, “taking …”); “exercising” is the right rendering; the word does not imply the entrance upon such responsibility, but the fulfillment of it. It is not a matter of assuming a position, but of the discharge of the duties. The word is found elsewhere in Heb. 12:15, “looking carefully,” rv. See look.¶ Cf. episkope in 1 Tim. 3:1 (see bishop, No. 2).
  • LOOK 13. episkopeo (πισκοπέω, 1983), lit., “to look upon” (epi, and No. 12), is rendered “looking carefully” in Heb. 12:15rv (kjv, “looking diligently”), epi being probably intensive here; in 1 Pet. 5:2, “to exercise the oversight, to visit, care for.” – OVERSIGHT (exercise, take)

 

[1] Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996). Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: based on semantic domains (electronic ed. of the 2nd edition., Vol. 1, p. 541). New York: United Bible Societies.

[2] Vine, W. E., Unger, M. F., & White, W., Jr. (1996). Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Vol. 2, p. 378). Nashville, TN: T. Nelson.

Oversight

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